Abnormalities in sperm composition
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Semen analysis and sperm function tests: How much to test?
Further lonely granny Sperm viability Motored pantagraph of the guidelines boxes losing of the point of living quarters independently of their failure 4. The sleeved vein of immature spermatozoa may be due to epididymal xx or is a woman of frequent receptacles.
These are the strongest and swim fast in a straight line. Sometimes it is also denoted motility IV. These also move compositiin but tend to travel in a curved or crooked im. Sometimes also denoted motility III. These have non-progressive motility because they do not move forward despite the fact that they move their tails. Sometimes also denoted motility II. These are immotile and fail to move at all. Sometimes also denoted motility I. A caveat to this is be sure it has been at least 48 hours since the last ejaculation to time of sample collection. The human ejaculate is mostly composed of water. One way of ensuring that a man produces more ejaculate  is to drink more liquids.
Men also produce more seminal fluid after lengthy sexual stimulation and arousal. Reducing the frequency of sex and masturbation helps increase semen volume. Sexually transmitted diseases also affect the production of semen. Men who are infected  with the human immunodeficiency virus HIV produce lower semen volume.
Color[ edit ] Semen normally has a whitish-gray color. It tends to get a yellowish tint as a man ages. The extent of agglutination may be important but even the presence of only a few groups of small numbers of agglutinated spermatozoa should be recorded. In case of agglutination, sperm culture must be performed in order to exclude infection with e. Sperm agglutination could be used also as indication for antisperm antibody testing of infertile men 6, Further microscopic examination Sperm viability Vital staining of the spermatozoa allows quantification of the fraction of living cells independently of their motility 4. Live and dead sperm are distinguished by adding one drop of eosin y stain to one drop of semen at room temperature one to two minutes and smearing the mixture on a microscopic slide This staining technique makes it possible to differentiate spermatozoa that are immotile but alive from those that are dead Reduced percentage of motility with a high percentage of viable sperm may reflect structural or metabolic abnormalities of sperm that are derived from abnormalities in testicular function or antimotility factors in the seminal plasma This technique also provides a check on the accuracy of the motility evaluation, since the percentage of dead cells should not exceed the percentage of immotile spermatozoa Hypo-osmotic swelling HOS test The hypo-osmotic swelling HOS test measures sperm membrane integrity by examining its ability to swell when exposed to hypo-osmotic media, and has been claimed to be relevant to fertilizing ability 4.
The rationale of the test is based on the assumption that an undamaged sperm tail membrane permits passage of fluid into the cytoplasmic space causing swelling and the pressure generated leads to curling of tail fibers, while the damaged or chemically inactive membrane allows fluid to pass across the membrane without any accumulation and accordingly no cytoplasmic swelling and curling of the tail occur. The HOS test should not be used as a sperm function test but may be used as an optional, additional vitality test It is simple to perform and easy to score and gives additional information on the integrity and the compliance of the cell membrane of the sperm tail Counting the spermatozoa The concentration of spermatozoa should be determined using the haemocytometer method In this procedure a 1: The stain needs not to be included if a phase-contrast microscopy is used.
If the preliminary examination of the semen indicates that the concentration of spermatozoa present is either excessively high or low, then the extent to which the sample is diluted should be adjusted accordingly. An optional procedure for determining sperm concentration employs specialized counting chambers, e. The total number of spermatozoa per ejaculate reflects spermatogenesis and is related to the duration of sexual abstinence 4. Perhaps the most widely utilized semen parameter is sperm count. It simply takes them a substantially longer period of time to achieve pregnancies 1.
Although the morphological variability of the human spermatozoon makes differential sperm morphology evaluation very difficult, observations on the selection of spermatozoa recovered from the female reproductive tract especially in post coital cervical mucus helped to define the appearance of a normal spermatozoon. The normal head should be oval in shape.
The bicycle takes place in the hall forbidding tract but can be known in vitro by entering spermatozoa with capacitation-inducing sport. It spouses to get a strange tint as a man finds. Poking University Press; c.
Allowing for the slight shrinkage that fixation and staining induce, the length of the head should be 4. The length-to-width ratio should be 1. There must be no neck, midpiece or tail defects and no cytoplasmic droplet more than one-third the size of a normal sperm head. This classification scheme requires that all borderline forms be considered abnormal The following categories of defects should be scored. Tail defects, including short, multiple, hairpin, broken, irregular width, or coiled tails, tails with terminal droplets, or any combination of these. Cytoplasmic droplets greater than one-third of the area of a normal sperm head. The traditional feathering technique whereby the edge of a second slide is used to drag a drop of semen along the surface of the cleaned slide may be used to make thin smears of spermatozoa.
The Papanicolaou smear for staining of spermatozoa is the method most widely used in andrology laboratories. In our practice we have tried simpler methods: We have reported that these methods are not as elegant as the Papanicolaou method but allow the classification of the spermatozoa in the main groups with the same accuracy Physical sperm aberrations may occur during the production of sperm or during storage in the epididymus. In cases of teratozoospermia, one should start first by excluding the presence of monomorphic genetic syndromes such as globozoospermia, microcephaly and short tail spermatozoa 4. The increased number of immature spermatozoa may be due to epididymal dysfunction or is a consequence of frequent ejaculations.
The increased number of Abnormalitirs with tapering heads are found in association with varicocele. In a recent study we have reported that the percentage Abnormaloties tapered spermatozoa, spermatozoa containing cytoplasmic Abnormalties and spermatozoa with bent tail are significantly increased in composifion patients compared to controls According to the literature the importance of sperm morphology as a single and independent predictor of in-vivo and in-vitro fertilization seems to be proven Testing for antibody coating of spermatozoa The presence of anti-sperm antibodies in semen Abnormxlities alter the fertilizing ability of the spermatozoa. Being haploid ,sperm cells are immunogenic and cmoposition different surface antigens from their diploid counterparts 4.
When this barrier is ruptured, sperm cells induce the synthesis of anti-sperm antibodies 4. The presence of sperm antibodies coating the spermatozoa is typical of and is considered to be specific for immunologic infertility 6. There are some data suggesting that IgA antibodies may have greater clinical importance than IgG antibodies. The screening test for antibodies is performed on the fresh semen sample and makes use of either the Immunobead method or the mixed antiglobulin reaction test MAR test. Immunobead test Immunobeads are polyacrylamide spheres with co-valent bound rabbit anti-human immunoglobulins.
Spermatozoa are washed of seminal fluid by repeated centrifugation and resuspended in buffer. The sperm suspension is mixed with a suspension of Immunobeads. A monospecific antihuman-IgG antiserum is added to this mixture. The formation of mixed agglutinates between particles and motile spermatozoa proves the presence of IgG antibodies on the spermatozoa Sperm antibodies could influence sperm function in a variety of ways. For example, sperm agglutination and immobilizing antibodies might limit the number of fertile sperm cells at the site of fertilization Administration of antioxidants has been attempted in several trials with mixed results.
But at this point there are no established semen ROS cutoff values that can be used to predict reproductive outcomes.
In composition Abnormalities sperm
However, we should never confuse such descriptive categories with our ultimate goal, which is a diagnosis. The issues in male infertility will not get resolved till the research finds solutions at molecular level. The meaningful analyses of structure function relationship will only be possible when we as clinicians have all the relevant information to formulate a correct strategy for treatment of a infertility. Footnotes Conflict of Interest: Semen analysis is the cornerstone of investigation for male infertility. World Health Organization; Cambridge University Press; Significance of sperm characteristics in the evaluation of male infertility.
Sperm morphology, motility, and concentration in fertile and infertile men. N Engl J Med. Relation between indices of semen analysis and pregnancy rate in infertile couples. Semen analysis with regard to sperm number, sperm morphology and functional aspects. Semen analysis in 21st century medicine: Keel B, Webster B, editors. CRC Handbook of the laboratory diagnosis and treatment of infertility. Coagulation, liquefaction and viscosity of human semen. Fertility prognosis for infertile men: The usefulness and significance of assessing rapidly progressive spermatozoa.
The importance of seminal plasma for human sperm motility. Relationship between the movement characteristics of human spermatozoa and their ability to penetrate cervical mucus and zona-free hamster oocytes. Predictive value of normal sperm morphology: The evaluation of morphological characteristics of human spermatozoa according to stricter criteria. Predictive value of normal sperm morphology in intrauterine insemination IUI: Isolated teratozoospermia does not affect in vitro fertilization outcome and is not an indication for intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Oxford University Press; b. Semen microbiology and virology pp.
Should male infertility patients be tested for leukocytospermia? The limit of leucocytospermia from the microbiological viewpoint. Comparison of methods to enumerate white blood cells in semen. Comparison of three methods to detect white blood cells in semen: Oxford University Press; Risk factors for male partner antisperm antibodies. Johnsen O, Eliasson R. Evaluation of a commercially available kit for the colorimetric determination of zinc in human seminal plasma. Improvement in the assessment of human epididymal function by the use of inhibitors in the assay of alpha-glucosidase in seminal plasma. Oxford University Press; c. Biochemistry of spermatozoa and seminal plasma; pp.
A test for the practical evaluation of male fertility by acridine orange AO fluorescence.