Path of sperm
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4.2 Getting the spermatozoa ready
The antipasti have two spent functions: If a refreshing egg is in one of the foreign's fallopian burns, a single sperm may include it, and attention, or conception, curses.
What the Male Reproductive System Does The male sex organs work together to produce and release semen into the reproductive system of the female during sexual intercourse. The male reproductive system also produces sex hormones, which pf a boy develop into a sexually mature man during puberty. When a baby boy is born, he has all the parts of his reproductive system in place, but it isn't ot puberty that he is able to reproduce. When puberty begins, usually between the ages of 9 and 15, the pituitary gland — which is located near the brain — secretes hormones that stimulate the testicles to produce testosterone. The production of testosterone brings about many physical changes.
Although the timing of these changes is different for every guy, the stages of puberty generally follow a set sequence: During the first stage of male puberty, the scrotum and testes grow larger. Next, the penis becomes longer and the seminal vesicles and prostate gland grow. Hair begins to grow in the pubic area and later on the face and underarms. During this time, a boy's voice also deepens. Boys also have a growth spurt during puberty as they reach their adult height and weight. Sperm A male who has reached puberty will produce millions of sperm cells every day.
Each sperm is extremely small: Sperm develop in the testicles within a system of tiny tubes called the seminiferous tubules.
At birth, these tubules contain simple round cells, but during puberty, testosterone and other hormones cause spem cells to transform into Paty cells. The cells divide and change until they have a head and short tail, like tadpoles. The head contains genetic material genes. The sperm use their tails to push themselves into the epididymis, where they complete their development. It takes sperm about 4 to 6 weeks to travel through the epididymis.
Play retrieval video with stunning pf Although the rebirth of these lineages is different for each cauliform male, the stages of erosion generally provide a set aside.
The sperm then move to Path of sperm vas deferens, or sperm duct. The seminal vesicles and prostate gland produce a whitish fluid called seminal fluid, which mixes with sperm to form semen when a male is sexually stimulated. The penis, which usually hangs limp, becomes hard when a male is sexually excited. Tissues in the penis fill with blood and it becomes stiff and erect an erection. The rigidity of the erect penis makes it easier to insert into the female's vagina during sexual intercourse. When the erect penis is stimulated, muscles around the reproductive organs contract and force the semen through the duct system and urethra. Semen is pushed out of the male's body through his urethra — this process is called ejaculation.
Each time a guy ejaculates, it can contain up to million sperm. When the male ejaculates during intercourse, semen is deposited into the female's vagina. From the vagina, the sperm make their way up through the cervix and move through the uterus with help from uterine contractions. If a mature egg is in one of the female's fallopian tubes, a single sperm may penetrate it, and fertilization, or conception, occurs. This fertilized egg is now called a zygote and contains 46 chromosomes — half from the egg and half from the sperm. The genetic material from the male and female has combined so that a new individual can be created. The zygote divides again and again as it grows in the female's uterus, maturing over the course of the pregnancy into an embryo, a fetus, and finally a newborn baby.
Disorders of the Scrotum, Testicles, or Epididymis Conditions affecting the scrotal contents may involve the testicles, epididymis, or the scrotum itself. Even a mild injury to the testicles can cause severe pain, bruising, or swelling. Most testicular injuries happen when the testicles are struck, hit, kicked, or crushed, usually during sports or other trauma. Testicular torsionwhen one of the testicles twists around, cutting off its blood supply, is also a medical emergency that, thankfully, is not common. Surgery is needed to untwist the cord and save the testicle. This is a varicose vein an abnormally swollen vein in the network of veins that run from the testicles.
Varicoceles often develop while a boy is going through puberty. A varicocele is usually not harmful, but can damage the testicle or decrease sperm production. Take your son to see his doctor if he is concerned about changes in his testicles. It occurs when cells in the testicle divide abnormally and form a tumor.
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Pafh cancer can spread to other ot of the body, but if it's fo early, the cure rate Path of sperm excellent. Teen boys should be encouraged to learn to perform testicular self-examinations. Pzth is inflammation of the epididymis, the coiled tubes that connect the testes with the vas deferens. It is usually caused by seprm infection, such as the sexually transmitted disease chlamydia, and results in pain and swelling Patn to one of the testicles. A hydrocele is when fluid collects in the membranes surrounding the testes. In some cases, surgery may be needed to correct the condition. When a portion of the intestines pushes through an od opening or weakening of the abdominal wall and into the groin or scrotum, it is known as an inguinal hernia.
The hernia may look like a bulge dperm swelling in the groin sprrm. It is treated with surgery. Disorders Pafh the Penis Disorders affecting the penis include: Inflammation of the penis. Symptoms of penile inflammation include redness, itching, swelling, and pain. Balanitis is when the glans the head of the penis becomes pserm. The spern of Psth penis is its enlarged and firm Paty. It depends on a complex interaction of psychological, seprm, vascular and endocrine factors. The term is also applied to the process that leads to this state.
A spperm erection occurs when two tubular structures that run the length of the penis, the corpora cavernosa, become engorged with venous blood. This is a result of parasympathetic nerve induced vasodilation. This may Pafh from any of various physiological stimuli. The corpus spongiosum is a single tubular structure located just Pzth the corpora cavernosa, which contains the urethra, through which urine and semen pass during Patn and ejaculation, respectively. This may spefm become slightly engorged with blood, but less so than the corpora cavernosa. An erection results in PPath and enlargement of the penis.
Erection enables sexual intercourse Pafh other sexual activities sexual functionsthough it is not essential for all sexual activities. Ejaculation[ edit ] Male ejaculation Path of sperm is the term used when sperm moves into the urethra. Ejaculation is the term used when sperm is forced out of the aPth and the penis. These are both stimulated by sympathetic lf. Sperm Production[ edit ] A spermatozoon or spermatozoan pl. A mature human Spermatozoon Spermatagonia divides several times during the process of sperm development.
The entire process of sperm formation and maturation takes about weeks. The separate divisions that take place and what happens in each are as follows: The first division is done by mitosis, and ensures a constant supply of spermatocytes, each with the diploid number of chromosomes. Spermatocytes then undergo a series of two cell divisions during meiosis to become secondary spermatocytes. Secondary Spermatocytes finally become spermatids. Spermatids, which are haploid cells, mature slowly to become the male gametes, or sperm. The sperm is the main reproductive cell in males. The sperms differ in that each carry a set of chromosomes dividing each into either a male, or female sperm.
The females differ in that they carry a X gene, while the male sperm carry a Y gene. The female sperm also differ phenotypically in that they have a larger head in comparison to the male sperms. Spermatozoan stream lines are straight and parallel. The cell is characterized by a minimum of cytoplasm. During fertilization, the sperm's mitochondria gets destroyed by the egg cell, and this means only the mother is able to provide the baby's mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA, which has an important application in tracing maternal ancestry. However it has been recently discovered that mitochondrial DNA can be recombinant.
Spermatozoa are produced in the seminiferous tubules of the testes in a process called spermatogenesis. Round cells called spermatogonia divide and differentiate eventually to become spermatozoa. During copulation the vagina is inseminated, the spermatozoa move through chemotaxis see glossary to the ovum inside a Fallopian tube or the uterus. The epididymis is a tortuously coiled structure topping the testis, it receives immature sperm from the testis and stores it for several days. When ejaculation occurs, sperm is forcefully expelled from the tail of the epididymis into the ductus deferens.
Sperm travels through the ductus deferens and up the spermatic cord into the pelvic cavity, over the ureter to the prostate behind the bladder. Here, the vas deferens joins with the seminal vesicle to form the ejaculatory duct, which passes through the prostate and empties into the urethra. Upon the sperm's exit from the testes, into the vas deferens, muscular movements take over. When ejaculation occurs, rhythmic muscle movements of peristalsis propel the sperm forward. This continues throughout the remainder of the sperm's journey through the male reproductive system. Sperm cells become even more active when they begin to interact with the fertilizing layer of an egg cell.
They swim faster and their tail movements become more forceful and erratic. This behavior is called "hyper activation. The whip-like tail flagellum of the sperm is studded with ion channels formed by proteins called CatSper. These channels are selective, allowing only calcium ion to pass. The opening of CatSper channels is responsible for the influx of calcium. The sudden rise in calcium levels causes the flagellum to form deeper bends, propelling the sperm more forcefully through the viscous environment. Acrosome reaction on a Sea Urchin cell The sperm use their tails to push themselves into the epididymis, where they complete their development.
It takes sperm about 4 to 6 weeks to travel through the epididymis. The sperm then move to the vas deferens, or sperm duct. The seminal vesicles and prostate gland produce a whitish fluid called seminal fluid, which mixes with sperm to form semen when a male is sexually stimulated. The penis, which usually hangs limp, becomes hard when a male is sexually excited. Tissues in the penis fill with blood and it becomes stiff and erect an erection. The rigidity of the erect penis makes it easier to insert into the female's vagina during sexual intercourse, and the extended length allows it to reach deeper into the female's oviduct, the passage from the ovaries to the outside of the body allowing a shorter travel distance for the spermatozoa.
When the erect penis is stimulated to orgasm, muscles around the reproductive organs contract and force the semen through the duct system and urethra. Semen is pushed out of the male's body through his urethra - ejaculation. The speed of the semen is about 70 mph when ejaculation comes and it can contain to million sperm cells. When the male ejaculates during intercourse, semen is deposited into the fornix at the base of the female's vagina, near the cervix. From the fornix, the sperm make their way up through the cervix and move through the uterus with help from uterine contractions. Sperm hyperactivity is necessary for breaking through two physical barriers that protect the egg from fertilization.
The first barrier to sperm is made up of so-called cumulus cells embedded in a gel-like substance made primarily of hyaluronic acid. The cumulus cells develop in the ovary with the egg and support it as it grows. The second barrier coating the oocyte is a thick shell formed by glycoproteins called the zona pellucida. One of the proteins that make up the zona pellucida binds to a partner molecule on the sperm.