Breast cancer and hypothesis
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Breast cancer hypothesis: a single cause for the majority of cases.
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National Cancer Institute, which is part of the National Institutes of Health found that "induced abortion is not associated with an increase Breast cancer and hypothesis breast cancer risk", assigning this conclusion the strongest possible evidence rating. More rigorous recent studies demonstrate no causal relationship between induced abortion and a subsequent increase in breast cancer risk. Brind is strongly anti-abortion and began lobbying politicians with the claim that abortion caused breast cancer in the early s. He therefore collaborated with two anti-abortion physicians and a statistician to publish a article in the Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health,  arguing that induced abortion was a risk factor for breast cancer.
I don't think the issue has been resolved. When we were talking about the conclusions, he [Brind] wanted to make the strongest statements. I tried to temper them a little bit, but Dr. Brind is very adamant about his opinion. InBrind was invited to the NCI workshop on abortion and breast cancer, where he was the only one to formally dissent from the workshop's finding that there is no link between the two. Brind blames the lack of support for his findings on a conspiracy, arguing that the NCI and other major medical organizations are engaged in a "cover-up" for the purpose of "protecting the abortion industry". In early pregnancy, levels of estrogenprogesteroneestradiol increase, leading to breast growth in preparation for lactation.
Proponents speculate that if this process is interrupted by an abortion or miscarriage—before full maturity differentiation in the third trimester—then more immature cells could be left than there were prior to the pregnancy. These immature cells could then be exposed to carcinogens and hormones over time, resulting in a greater potential risk of breast cancer.
This mechanism was first proposed and explored in rat studies conducted in the s. There are four types of lobules: Type 1 has 11 ductules immature Type 2 has 47 ductules immature Type 3 has 80 ductules mature, fewer hormone receptors Type 4 are fully matured cancer resistant and contain breast milk During early pregnancy, type 1 lobules Breast cancer and hypothesis become type 2 lobules because of changes in estrogen and progesterone levels. Maturing into type 3 and then reaching full differentiation as type 4 lobules requires an increase of human placental lactogen hPL which occurs in the last few months of pregnancy.
According to the abortion—breast cancer hypothesis, if an abortion were to interrupt this sequence then it could leave a higher ratio of type 2 lobules than existed prior to the pregnancy. During the s several studies by Brian MacMahon et al. Their paper published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute inaccurately  concluded that "where a relationship was observed, abortion was associated with increased, not decreased, risk. While results did suggest that rats who had interrupted pregnancies might be subject to "similar or even higher incidence of benign lesions" than virgin rats, there was no evidence to suggest that abortion would result in a higher incidence of carcinogenesis.
A more thorough examination of the phenomenon was conducted inconfirming the results. Such studies are considered more reliable than retrospective studies and case-control studies. The authors estimated the relative risk of breast cancer among women who had had an induced abortion to be 1. The relative risk of breast cancer for women who had a spontaneous abortion in this analysis was 0. The current search for multiple causes is unavailing. This report explores whether any single aetiological agent may be responsible for the majority of cases, and attempts to define its properties. MAIN RESULTS—Genetic inheritance is not the main cause of breast cancer because most cases are sporadic, there is a low prevalence of family history, and genetically similar women have differing rates after migration.
And Breast hypothesis cancer
Environmental exposure, such as pollution by industrialisation, is not a major cause, as deduced from a spectrum Brewst epidemiological data. The possibility of infection as cause is not persuasive as there is no direct hypothesia evidence and no epidemiological support. Oestrogen status is closely related to breast cancer risk, but there are numerous inconsistencies and paradoxes. It is suggested that oestrogens are not the proximate agent but are promoters acting in concert with the causal agent. Dietary factors, and especially fat, are associated with the aetiology of breast cancer as shown by intervention and ecological correlation studies, but the evidence from case-control and cohort studies is inconsistent and contradictory.
Many of the observed inconsistencies in the epidemiology are explainable if deficiency of this agent is permissive for breast cancer to develop. Some properties of the putative agent are outlined, and research investigations proposed. Selected References These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article. Russo J, Russo IH. Toward a unified concept of mammary carcinogenesis. Prog Clin Biol Res. Family history, age, and risk of breast cancer. Prospective data from the Nurses' Health Study. Breast and ovarian cancer incidence in BRCA1-mutation carriers.
Breast Cancer Linkage Consortium. Am J Hum Genet. Genetic analysis of breast cancer in the cancer and steroid hormone study. Family history and the risk of breast cancer. Epidemiology of breast cancer with special reference to the role of diet. Search for a human breast cancer virus.
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Geographic and family studies of immunological responses to antigens of the murine mammary tumor virus in sera of patients with breast cancer. Trans Assoc Am Physicians. Detection in human breast carcinomas of an antigen immunologically related to a group-specific antigen of mouse mammary tumor virus. Human breast carcinoma antigen is immunologically related to the polypeptide of the group-specific glycoprotein of mouse mammary tumor virus. Murine Breast cancer and hypothesis tumor virus related antigen in human male mammary carcinoma. Antibodies reactive with the mouse mammary tumor virus in sera of breast cancer patients. Particles with properties of retroviruses in monocytes from patients with breast cancer.
Characterization of sequences related to the mouse mammary tumor virus that are specific to MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Antibodies reactive with murine mammary tumor virus in sera of patients with breast cancer: Mouse mammary tumour virus-related antigens in core-like density fractions from large samples of women's milk. Nucleotide sequence of human endogenous retrovirus genome related to the mouse mammary tumor virus genome. Retrovirus-like particles from the human T47D cell line are related to mouse mammary tumour virus and are of human endogenous origin.
Is breast cancer caused by late exposure to a common virus? Exposure to breastmilk in infancy and the risk of breast cancer. Exposure to breast milk in infancy and adult breast cancer risk. J Natl Cancer Inst. Breast-feeding and breast cancer in the offspring. A study of the epidemiology of cancer of the breast.
Estrogens, progestogens, normal breast cell proliferation, and breast cancer risk. Avoidable causes of breast cancer: Ann N Y Acad Sci. Surg Clin North Am. Long-term surveillance of mortality and cancer incidence in women receiving hormone replacement therapy. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. Risk factors, lifetime risk, and age at onset of breast cancer. Effect of hormone replacement therapy on breast cancer risk: The risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women who have used estrogen replacement therapy. Oestrogen therapy after the menopause--boon or bane? Combined estrogen and progestin hormone replacement therapy in relation to risk of breast cancer in middle-aged women.
Risk factors of breast cancer in Finland. Risk factors for breast carcinoma in Singaporean Chinese women: Does postmenopausal estrogen administration increase the risk of breast cancer? Contributions of animal, biochemical, and clinical investigative studies to a resolution of the controversy. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. Investigation of the possible relationship between oral contraceptives and benign and malignant breast disease. A prospective study of oral contraceptive use and risk of breast cancer Nurses' Health Study, United States. Breast cancer in premenopausal and postmenopausal women.
Mortality associated with oral contraceptive use: Oral contraceptive use and breast cancer in young women. A joint national case-control study in Sweden and Norway.